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The Asia-Pacific Journal of International Humanitarian Law is a peer-reviewed academic journal, produced by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the University of the Philippines Institute of International Legal Studies. First published in 2005, the Journal showcases scholarly articles, book reviews, and commentary on significant developments in International Humanitarian Law, and related fields, with a special focus on the Asia-Pacific region. It is published once a year, in print and online.

Editorial policy

The main objective of the Journal is to provide timely multi-disciplinary analysis on contemporary humanitarian issues arising from armed conflict or other situations of collective violence, from an Asia-Pacific perspective. Each issue shall revolve on a specific theme, and explore other related domains of expertise related to humanitarian policy and action, such as history, sociology, and anthropology. 

Manuscripts must be original, unpublished academic work, not currently under consideration for publication by other journals. 

Opinions published in the Journal are understood to reflect the individual author’s views only. Persons currently affiliated with the ICRC must ascertain whether a conflict of interest exists, and state whether the submission is made in one’s official capacity. Disclaimers may be added by the Editorial Team, as may be appropriate.  

Authors are expected to comply with the Journal’s editorial policy and guidelines. Submissions may be rejected at any stage of the publication process if they deviate from the same policy and guidelines.

Revision and editing process

Publication of submissions is not guaranteed, whether solicited or proffered. All submissions shall undergo an initial screening by the editorial team prior to peer review. Manuscripts that provisionally meet the requirements of the Journal are sent to one or more peer reviewers, as may be appropriate. Once the editorial team conducts its evaluation of a manuscript and takes into account the comments of the peer reviewers, a notification of the acceptance, rejection or need for revision of the manuscript is given.

The Journal uses a double-blind anonymous peer review process, with peer reviewers identified based on their expertise. They can include members of the Journal’s Board of Experts, ICRC staff, or scholars invited to review a specific article. 

Based on the advice of the peer reviewer(s), the editorial team can either: reject the submission; request that the author revise and resubmit the manuscript; accept the submission subject to mandatory revisions; or accept the submission subject to minor revisions.

Once updated drafts of submissions accepted subject to revision are received, the editorial team works with the author(s) for final substantive editing, and citation- or fact-checking. The manuscript then undergoes copy editing and type-setting.

How to treat editorial comments

Once the author receives his or her draft article from the editorial team with editing notes and comments, it is important that the author goes through these edits and comments as soon as practicable to send the revised draft back within the specified deadline.

Changes: It is important that all changes to the draft be implemented using the “track changes” function, to enable the editorial team to easily identify edits to the previous version.

Areas of disagreement:  Should the author disagree with an edit or a comment and he or she does not wish to implement the change in the revised draft, the author should include a comment bubble giving, in one or two sentences, a brief reason for this disagreement and lack of implementation. 

Formatting and citation requirements for submissions

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word format in 12 pt Times New Roman font with 1.5 line spacing (including for the footnotes). 

Length: Manuscripts submitted should be approximately 7,000 words, footnotes included. 

Abstract: All manuscripts should be accompanied by a short abstract (less than 100 words) summarizing the main content/argument of the article.

Keywords: A few keywords should be identified for easy web search and referencing.

Biography: All manuscripts should be accompanied by a short biography (one or two sentences per author) describing the current function/affiliation of the author. The author may indicate his or her preference for including e-mail contact details with the biography.

Highlighting: No highlighting (bold, italics, underlined) should be used within the text body, except for italics for foreign language terms: e.g. a limine. Foreign organisations should not be set in italics.

Headings: Please do not use more than 3 different levels of headings

      • Title Level 1
      • Title Level 2 
  • Title Level 3


Please use British English spelling (labour, not labor; – judgement, not judgment (except in the case of legal judgments); but note -ize, not -ise).

Please use the spellings found at www.oxforddictionaries.com (use the main spelling rather than any spelling listed as ‘alternative’).


Punctuation points should be followed by a single space.

Double inverted commas should be used throughout. Single inverted commas should be reserved for quotations within quotations. 

  • If the quotation forms a full sentence, the closing full stop should be inside the quotation mark. 
  • Quoted passages of more than about forty words should be indented, without quotation marks.
  • Ellipses “…” should be used to indicate an omission of words within a quotation.
  • The first word after a colon should always be lower case, except for subtitles in references. 
  • Centuries should be referred to as follows: twentieth century. When used adjectivally they should be hyphenated (e.g. twentieth-century phenomenon).
  • Please do not use Oxford commas, unless it actually helps clarify the list of items.


Capitals: Capitals should be used when a specific reference is intended (e.g. the Parliament) 

Please note: 

    • “States” is always written with a capital S.
  • “States party to + name of the treaty”, but “States Parties”.
  • Occupying Power, Detaining Power, Protecting Power
  • Capitals for official titles when followed with the person’s name (e.g.: “Minister of Health Joe Bloggs”) but otherwise lower case (e.g. “The ICRC president met with the minister of health”). But Ministry of Health with capitals.



  • Abbreviations should be used as rarely as possible in the article, and only when indispensable (e.g. too frequent occurrence of otherwise complex expressions)
  • Abbreviations are generally followed by a full stop (Doc., Vol., No., Q.C.), except in the cases of acronyms (EU, USA, ECHR, UN) and after functions or titles (Mr and Dr, not Mr. and Dr.)
  • Abbreviations within footnotes and parentheses are permissible (e.g., etc., i.e., ibid.). Abbreviations of the Geneva Conventions and Protocols are also permissible after having spelt them out on first use (GC I/ GC II/etc./ AP I …).
  • Please use (ed.) but (eds)


Dates: Use the following style: 1 February 1989.

Numerals: Numerals below 100 should be spelt out, except for ages, which should always been given in digits. Please note: 10,000, not 10.000. Percentages should always be given in figures (e.g. 7%).

Italics: Case names and Latin expressions and abbreviations should be italicized (habeas corpus, mens rea, prima facie, ultra vires, de facto, ibid.).

Tables, graphs, and maps: should all have a brief descriptive title and a source. 

Translations and emphasis: Please indicate in a footnote, between brackets, when the translation is yours “(our translation)” or when you add an emphasis in a citation “(emphasis added)”. 

Internet References: 

    • For references available on the internet please indicate “available at:” followed by the full website link. 
    • The first internet reference should indicate the date of the last visit for all subsequent references.

Example: …, available at: www.icrc.org/eng/resources/international-review/index.jsp  (all internet references were accessed on March 2014). 


Books with one or multiple authors: 

    • Names and surnames of all authors (use et al. only if there are more than three authors). 
    • Title in italics, using headline case (initial caps) on all significant words. The subtitle should be separated from the title by a colon.
    • Edition, Volume number (if applicable)
    • Publisher, city, year
    • Page number and/or paragraph number (if applicable): use “p.” or “pp.” for page(s) and “para.” or “paras” for paragraph(s). 
      • Page ranges should be indicated as follows: pp. 34–35 
      • Separate page citations within the same work: pp. 4 and 86.
  • Please use ff. instead of et seq.. (pp. 5 ff.)


    • Priscilla Hayner, Unspeakable Truths: Confronting State Terror and Atrocity, Routledge, London, 2001, p. 100.
    • Marco Sassòli, Antoine A. Bouvier and Anne Quintin, How Does Law Protect in War?, 3rd ed., Vol. 1, ICRC, Geneva, 2011, p. 343.


Book chapters: 

  • Names and surnames of all authors of the chapter
  • Title between double inverted commas
  • ‘in’
  • Names and surnames of all authors of the collective book, followed by (ed.)/(eds)
  • Title of the collective book in italics
  • Edition, Volume number (if applicable)
  • Publisher (unless it is the same as the author), city (and initials of the US State if applicable), year
  • Page number and/or paragraph number (if applicable): please indicate only the relevant page(s).


    • Priscilla Hayner, “Fifteen Truth Commissions – 1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study”, in Neil J. Kritz (ed.), Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes, Vol. 1, United States Institute of Peace Press, Washington, DC, 1995, p. 229.


Journal Articles: 

  • Names and surnames of all authors of the article
  • Title between double inverted commas
  • Name of the journal in italics
  • Volume number, issue number, date, relevant page number and/or paragraph number (if applicable)
  • When making a general citation to a whole essay or article rather than to any specific page, there is no need to include any page numbers in the citation; please do not include the full page range (ie. the first and last page numbers) of the essay, or the first page number only.


    • Tristan Ferraro, “Determining the Beginning and End of an Occupation Under International Humanitarian Law”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 94, No. 885, 2012, p. 133.
    • Raoul Alfonsin, “‘Never Again’ in Argentina”, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2011.


Blog posts: 

  • Names and surnames of all authors of the blog post
  • Title between double inverted commas
  • Name of the blog in italics
  • Date of the blog post
  • “available at:”
  • Full website link


Ian Scobbie, “Operationalising the Law of Armed Conflict for Dissident Forces in Libya”, EJIL: Talk! – Blog of the European Journal of International Law, 31 August 2011, available at: www.ejiltalk.org/operationalising-the-law-of-armed-conflict-for-dissident-forces-in-libya/

NGO and Think-Tank Reports

If the document cannot be attributed to a specific author:

  • Name of the NGO
  • Title of the report in italics
  • Publisher (unless it is the same as the author) and city 
  • Date
  • Page number and/or paragraph number (if applicable)


    • Human Rights Watch, Keeping the Momentum: One Year in the Life of the UN Human Rights Council, Geneva, 22 September 2011.

If the document can be attributed to a specific author:

  • Names and surnames of all authors
  • Title of the report in italics 
  • Type of document, publisher and city (if applicable)
  • Date
  • Page number and/or paragraph number (if applicable)


    • Abby Stoddard, Adele Harmer and Victoria DiDomenico, Providing Aid in Insecure Environments: 2009 Update. Trends in Violence Against Aid Workers and the Operational Response: Why Violent Attacks on Aid Workers Are on the Increase, Humanitarian Policy Group Policy Brief No. 34, Overseas Development Institute, London, April 2009.



  • Names and surnames of all authors of the article
  • Title between double inverted commas
  • Name of the newspaper in italics
  • Date of the article
  • Page number (if applicable) 


    • Henri E. Cauvin, “Angolan Rebels in Disarray without Leader”, New York Times, 27 February 2002, p. 3.


Personally conducted interviews:


    • Interview with Peter Maurer, ICRC President, Geneva, March 2013 (on file with author).
    • Anonymous interview with government official, Colombia, September 2013 (on file with author).


International case law:

  • Jurisdiction
  • Full name of the case in italics
  • Case number
  • Stage of procedure
  • ICJ Reports if applicable
  • Date 
  • Page and/or paragraph number (if applicable)


    • International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu, Case No. ICTR-96-4-I, Judgment (Appeals Chamber), 1 June 2001, paras. 37–45.
    • International Court of Justice, Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1986, paras. 172–179.


National case law:

Please follow as far as possible the format of the national tribunal in accordance with the following examples:

  • Israel 

HCJ, 769/02, Public Committee Against Torture in Israel and Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment v. Israel and Others, ILDC 597 (IL 2006), para. 40. 

  • Germany 

BGH (Federal Court of Justice), NJW 1992, p. 1672.

International Treaties:

International Conventions, Protocols:

  • Protocol Additional (I) to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 1125 UNTS 3, 8 June 1977 (entered into force 7 December 1978), Art. 35(1). 
  • Geneva Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949, 75 UNTS 31 (entered into force 21 October 1950), Art. 47.
    • “Article” in sentences but “Art.” or “Arts” in references.
    • “Article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions” (subsequent references in the same text: “common Article 3”) in the body of the text; “common Art. 3 to the GC” in references.



  • Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/9,

 17 July 1998 (entered into force 1 July 2002) 


UN or regional body Documents:

    • Report of the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2005/7, 22 December 2004, para. 45.


UN Resolutions:

    • UNGA Res. 2857 (XXVI),  20 December 1971
    • UNSC Res. 181, 7 August 1963



  • Jean Pictet (ed.), Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Vol. 3: Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, ICRC, Geneva, 1960, p. 542.
  • Yves Sandoz, Christophe Swinarski and Bruno Zimmermann (eds), Commentary on the Additional Protocols, ICRC, Geneva, 1987, p. 16


ICRC Customary Law Study: 

  • Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck (eds), Customary International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 1: Rules, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005 (ICRC Customary Law Study).


Cross References

Where there are subsequent references to the same work, use the initial of the name of the author, followed by his/her surname and by “above note 1, p. 4” and not “supra note 1, p.4”. 


T. Meron, above note 1, p. 4


If more than one work of the same author have previously been cited in the same note, use a short form of the title work to indicate which one it is.


T. Meron, “The Humanization of International Law”, above note 3, p. 4.

Ibid.” is used where there are two or more consecutive references to the same work.


Book Reviews

Book reviews should be approximately 1,500-2,500 words, submitted in a Word document (Size 12 font, Times New Roman, 1.5 line spacing). Book review essays on a suite of books may be comprised of 2,500-3,000 words.
All book reviews should be prepared in accordance with the Journal’s general Guidelines for Authors (see above).

In drafting a book review, authors are asked to briefly summarize the principal features of the book, challenges and innovations posed to current thinking on the subject, and recommendations for further topics or areas of research, among others.

The editorial team reserves the right to make a decision on publishing the book review upon receipt of the complete draft, and may suggest revisions prior thereto.